Colonization, growth, and clonal morphology differ with genotype and are influenced by elevation. Intra-specific responses of a dominant C4 grass to altered precipitation patterns. Spartina alterniflora was transplanted into dieback areas of a salt marsh in southeast Louisiana at two elevations (ambient and +30 cm) with and without macro- (N, P, and K) and micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) additions to determine if transplant success is dependent on increasing elevation or nutrients. Differences between edge and center are interpreted as differences in clone morphology. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. to tidal elevations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts demonstrated that although this species is primarily confined to the intertidal zone, its elevational limits. In this paper I examine the role of interspecific competition in maintaining this zonation pattern. Global DNA cytosine methylation variation in Spartina alterniflora at North Inlet, SC. In a created Louisiana salt marsh, https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0180:GAEISA]2.0.CO;2. ESA Headquarters1990 M Street, NWSuite 700 Self-extracting zipped files; when downloading a data file, the metadata will be downloaded. Our previous field mesocosm experiment in the CDNR assessed the influence of intertidal elevation on the establishment and survival of S. alterniflora and indicated a threshold elevation of 2.5 m, which corresponds to a mean daily inundation duration of 10 h/d (Cui et al., 2015). S. alterniflora, along with other Spartina was initially seen by many coastal engineers as a species that could be used to create natural erosion control barriers.S. Genetic structure and habitat selection of the tall form Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Differences in growth and clone morphology of different genets, and the frequent occurrence of seedlings throughout the site, underscore the importance of genetic variability in natural and created populations. Effectiveness of microtopographic structure in species recovery in degraded salt marshes. Land cover changes in tidal salt marshes of the Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina) during the past 40 years. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. Standing biomass of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Seedling recruitment was an important component of S. alterniflora colonization at all elevations and distances from edge two years after site creation. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle. An official website of the United States government. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. smooth cordgrass. Colonization, growth, and clonal morphology differ with genotype and are influenced by elevation. Spartina alterniflora transplanted into elevated plots had more than … Habitat range and phenotypic variation in salt marsh plants. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Population variation of invasive Spartina alterniflora can differentiate bacterial diversity in its rhizosphere. The discrepancy of inundation duration thresholds between these two mesocosms experiments may be explained by the … No seedlings that grew from sown seeds became established at elevations below 36 cm (msl) while the greatest number established in the upper tier. Link. Spartina alterniflora Predicting performance for ecological restoration: a case study using Spartina alterniflora. Local adaptation of Spartina alterniflora to environmental conditions may lead to dominance by different suites of genotypes in different locations within a marsh. This ... Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Habitat modification inhibits conspecific seedling recruitment in populations of an invasive ecosystem engineer. A number of plant morphological measures were found to vary significantly among the five genotypes and had broad‐sense heritabilities ranging up to 0.71. Inter-specific competition: Spartina alterniflora is replacing Spartina anglica in coastal China. Triadica sebifera Monospecific stands of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. r-Selected Traits in an Invasive Population. Seed flotation and germination of salt marsh plants: The effects of stratification, salinity, and/or inundation regime. A lock ( SPECIES: Spartina alterniflora GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Smooth cordgrass is a large, coarse, warm-season grass, which is physiologically adapted to the salt marsh habitat [ 26 , 27 ]. Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) reproduction and seedling colonization after hurricane charley: Comparisons of Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay. Vegetation Responses to Tidal Restoration. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND INBREEDING VARY WITH SUCCESSIONAL STAGE IN CREATED SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA MARSHES. The sites include one Typha-dominated brackish marsh, one Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt … Marsh. The results showed that elevation was the most important predictor for species presence at each scale. . The accretion rate and elevation change has been indicated as one of the most important factors in ecology of the marshes. Clonal variation in response to salinity and flooding stress in four marsh macrophytes of the northern gulf of Mexico, USA. of occurrence do not correspond to a consistent elevation relative to a tidal datum in all marsh locations. Spartina alterniflora was transplanted into dieback areas of a salt marsh in southeast Louisiana at two elevations (ambient and +30 cm) with and without macro- (N, P, and K) and micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) additions to determine if transplant 2009). Population variation of invasive Spartina alterniflora can differentiate bacterial diversity in its rhizosphere. Genetic effects of a large-scaleSpartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) dieback and recovery in the northern Gulf of Mexico. 1.2.2 Purpose: The purpose of this project is the long term study of Spartina alterniflora and nutrients in salt marsh ecosystems. Short- and Long-Term Vegetative Propagation of Two Spartina Species on a Salt Marsh in Southern Brazil. Differences between edge and center of clonal patches also occurred for some response variables, and there were also significant interactions with genotype. The area dominated by S. alterniflora in the three distance zones increased concomitantly with clonal growth. Phenotypic plasticity influences the success of clonal propagation in industrial pharmaceutical Cannabis sativa. It dominates the marshes in its native range. Distance from edge was confounded by elevation in this comparison of natural colonization. in China. Spartina alterniflora, a close relative of S. densiflora, is much more effective at trapping sediment and raising mudflat or marsh elevations, and has been introduced in China and other locations to reclaim land and protect against flooding (Wan et al. Hybrid Spartina rapidly colonized mudflats, such as these surrounding Alameda Island.. Contrasting trait responses to latitudinal climate variation in two lineages of an invasive grass. Multi-Decadal Changes in Salt Marshes of Cape Cod, MA: Photographic Analyses of Vegetation Loss, Species Shifts, and Geomorphic Change. Figure 3. Habitat. Washington, DC 20036phone 202-833-8773email: esajournals@esa.org. Plant response to fungal root endophytes varies by host genotype in the foundation species Spartina alterniflora. Salt marshes along the Atlantic coast of North America are frequently characterized by extensive stands of smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, distributed in two main phenotypes: (i) a tall form (>1 m) that grows near estuarine tidal creeks and (ii) a short form (<50 cm) that dominates the high marsh (Valiela, Teal and Deuser 1978; Mendelssohn and Morris 2000). The rate of clonal expansion in diameter was 3.1 m/yr, and clonal growth was linear over the 28 mo of the study. Red Mangrove Seedling Survival, Growth, and Reproduction: Effects of Environment and Maternal Genotype. In a constructed marsh, we found reduced colonization in terms of density of clones with increasing distance from edge in a 200‐ha mudflat created in 1996; however, growth in diameter was not different among three 100‐m‐long zones that differed in distance from site edge. Intraspecific Variation in Growth of Marsh Macrophytes in Response to Salinity and Soil Type: Implications for Wetland Restoration. A number of plant morphological measures were found to vary significantly among the five genotypes and had broad‐sense heritabilities ranging up to 0.71. Plant Source Influence on Differences between edge and center of clonal patches also occurred for some response variables, and there were also significant interactions with genotype. A field experiment revealed that S. alterniflora height and total stem length varied with genotype, while stem density and flowering stem density did not. 2. Ensuring effective restoration efforts with salt marsh grass populations by assessing genetic diversity. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The rate of clonal expansion in diameter was 3.1 m/yr, and clonal growth was linear over the 28 mo of the study. All rights reserved. Atlantic cordgrass. Sediment burial stimulates the growth and propagule production of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.. Salt marsh restoration with sediment-slurry amendments following a drought-induced large-scale disturbance. Relative importance of sexual and asexual reproduction for range expansion of Spartina alterniflora in different tidal zones on Chinese coast. Site. Working off-campus? Data presented suggests that the short height form of Spartina alterniflora observed in inland areas of Louisiana Gulf Coast marshes is caused by toxic concentrations of sulfide, a result of slightly lower elevation and subsequently lower sediment redox potential than the adjacent productive streamside marsh. (Spartina) has been shown to correlate with the relative elevation of the sediment surface and anomalies in mean sea level. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of saltmarsh Spartina alterniflora from four coastal Louisiana basins. An analysis of data relatingSpartina alterniflora Loisel. Spartina alterniflora monocultures dominate low marsh habitats while the seaward border of high marsh habitats is generally dominated by Spartina patens. Sediment Type Affects Competition between a Native and an Exotic Species in Coastal China. 3. Clones of Spartina alterniflora and S. patens often form circular patches of vegetation, spreading radially by vegetative means; large clones of these species are readily seen from the air. A Surface Elevation Table (SET) is used to measure changes in the elevation of the marsh surface at three long term marsh fertilization experimental research sites. Trait and density responses of Spartina alterniflora to inundation in the Yellow River Delta, China. Trade-offs among growth, clonal, and sexual reproduction in an invasive plant Spartina alterniflora responding to inundation and clonal integration. Distance from edge was confounded by elevation in this comparison of natural colonization. Secure .gov websites use HTTPS Habitat choice and seed–seedling conflict of Spartina alterniflora on the coast of China. A field experiment revealed that S. alterniflora height and total stem length varied with genotype, while stem density and flowering stem density did not. They are characterized by fine sediments and halophytic vegetation. Population clonal diversity and fine-scale genetic structure in Oryza officinalis (Poaceae) from China, implications for in situ conservation. These results indicate that S. alterniflora populations developing on new substrata colonize broadly, but growth and reproduction vary with genotype and are influenced by changes in elevation (range: 11.8 cm), and probably other environmental factors, over relatively small distances. Elevation differences over distances of a few meters influenced total stem length and flowering stem density but not other response variables. Specifically, the These results indicate that S. alterniflora populations developing on new substrata colonize broadly, but growth and reproduction vary with genotype and are influenced by changes in elevation (range: 11.8 cm), and probably other environmental factors, over relatively small distances. Environmental determination of shoot height in populations of the cordgrassSpartina maritima. Clones that were larger in diameter also tended to have greater stem heights and total stem lengths. Clonal structure, growth pattern and preemptive space occupancy through sprouting of an invasive tree, In some locations, S. number of site specific conditions such as elevation, shoreline slope, and frequency, depth and duration of flooding. Incorporating marine macrophytes in plant–soil feedbacks: Emerging evidence and opportunities to advance the field. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. Survival and Growth in Restored South Carolina Salt Marshes It is commonly found growing on open coastal marshes between high and low tides from Newfoundland south to Florida and Texas. Introduction. The Invasive Spartina Project is a coordinated regional effort among local, state and federal organizations dedicated to preserving California's extraordinary coastal biological resources through the elimination of introduced species of Spartina (cordgrass). The inundation regime and growth range of Spartina alterniflora also play major roles in formation of the marsh and sustaining it. The emerging role of genetic diversity for ecosystem functioning: Estuarine macrophytes as models. Genotypic interactions limit growth and stimulate flowering in a salt marsh foundation plant species. 1996-2015 * Monthly change in elevation + SE The variation in the vertical distribution of this species reported among marsh … Harnessing Positive Species Interactions to Enhance Coastal Wetland Restoration. Effects of salinity and clonal integration on growth and sexual reproduction of the invasive grass Spartina alterniflora. Spartina alterniflora (Smooth Cordgrass) is a species of marsh grass native to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, where it is considered a valuable plant making important contributions to the coastal ecology: Its dense growth provides protection against storm surge and “erosion control along shorelines, canal banks, levees, and other areas of… Surface Elevation Tables (SET) were used to measure changes in the elevation of the marsh surface at Goat Island high- and low-marsh plots beginning in 1996. Snail behavioral preference for flowering stems does not impact Spartina alterniflora reproduction. marshes on the eastern shore of Virginia, USA by identifying the optimum elevation for Spartina alterniflora growth in two marshes. Spartina alterniflora . and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Interestingly, although Spartina alterniflora marsh responded strongly to sea-level rise, we did not detect significant effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration (720 ppm). . 2011). However, the lower initial clonal densities and colonization by other plant species resulted in reduced overall dominance by S. alterniflora in the two more‐interior locations. Spartina alterniflora was transplanted into dieback areas of a salt marsh in southeast Louisiana at two elevations (ambient and +30 cm) with and without macro- (N, P, and K) and micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) additions to determine if transplant success is dependent on increasing elevation or nutrients.Spartina alterniflora transplanted into elevated plots had more than twice the above- and … Genetic Variation of Spartina alterniflora in the New York Metropolitan Area and Its Relevance for Marsh Restoration. Clones that were larger in diameter also tended to have greater stem heights and total stem lengths. Seedlings were spatially very patchy and tended to occur near clones that probably produced them. Facilitation of survival and growth of Baccharis halimifolia L. by Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Seedlings were spatially very patchy and tended to occur near clones that probably produced them. Dates . Aboveground biomass, stem density, stem height and percent organic nitrogen were measured as a function of relative elevation. Colonization, growth, and clonal morphology differ with genotype and are influenced by elevation. Surface Elevation Tables (SET) were used to measure changes in the elevation of the marsh surface at Goat Island high- and low-marsh plots beginning in 1996. Differential incorporation of scientific advances affects coastal habitat restoration practice. Current distribution of Spartina alterniflora across the United States (USGS) History of invasiveness Spartina alterniflora is a rhizomatous grass native to the Atlantic and Gulf coast marshes of North America (Xiao et al. ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Geographic subdivisions for Spartina alterniflora: CCo (San Francisco Bay) MAP CONTROLS 1. Seedling recruitment was an important component of S. alterniflora colonization at all elevations and distances from edge two years after site creation. A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the Designing microtopographic structures to facilitate seedling recruitment in degraded salt marshes. LockA locked padlock Plant Community Establishment in a Coastal Marsh Restored Using Sediment Additions. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. S. alterniflora has been introduced to new regions Goat Island. The area dominated by S. alterniflora in the three distance zones increased concomitantly with clonal growth. Learn more. Learn about our remote access options, USGS National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, Louisiana 70506 USA, Louisiana Environmental Research Center, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 USA. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. High, Low. Local adaptation of Spartina alterniflora to environmental conditions may lead to dominance by different suites of genotypes in different locations within a marsh. In the natural marsh Spartina alterniflora dominated, or codominated with S. patens and Distichlis spicata, from the lowest elevation up to 29.9 cm NGVD, while S. patens dominated on a ridge (41.2 cm NGVD) that had formed from storm deposition. These results indicate that S. alterniflora populations developing on new substrata colonize broadly, but growth and reproduction vary with genotype and are influenced by changes in elevation (range: 11.8 cm), and probably other environmental factors, over relatively small distances. Unraveling the Gordian Knot: Eight testable hypotheses on the effects of nutrient enrichment on tidal wetland sustainability. Differences between edge and center are interpreted as differences in clone morphology. Effects of increased elevation and macroand micronutrient additions on Spartina alterniflora transplant success in salt-marsh dieback areas in Louisiana © 2021 Ecological Society of America. Marsh surface elevations were extracted from LIDAR data collected in 2003. Official websites use .gov Effects of fertilizer, elevation, and tidal inundation on seedling establishment of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens were tested at a wave-protected sandy dredged material site, Galveston Bay, Texas. Elevation differences over distances of a few meters influenced total stem length and flowering stem density but not other response variables. Explore recent publications by USGS authors, Browse all of Pubs Warehouse by publication type and year, Descriptions of US Geological Survey Report Series, https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0180:GAEISA]2.0.CO;2, Genotype and elevation influence Spartina alterniflora colonization and growth in a created salt marsh, 10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0180:GAEISA]2.0.CO;2, National Wetlands Research Center, Wetland and Aquatic Research Center. Temporal variations of S. alterniflora distribution patterns, i.e. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass, grows 0.5-3 m in height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp. Prescribed fire and cutting as tools for reducing woody plant succession in a created salt marsh. Aboveground and belowground productivity ofSpartina alterniflora (Smooth Cordgrass) in natural and created Louisiana salt marshes. Self‐thinning and size‐dependent flowering of the grass Spartina alterniflora across space and time. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Submergence, nutrient enrichment, and tropical storm impacts on Spartina alterniflora in the microtidal northern Gulf of Mexico. The Spartina alterniflora database 1984-2015 includes biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry, and marsh elevation. The relative importance of environmental variables for Spartina alterniflora distribution was investigated across different spatial scales using maximum entropy modelling (MaxEnt), a species distribution modelling technique. Effects of oil exposure, plant species composition, and plant genotypic diversity on salt marsh and mangrove assemblages. Soil erodibility differs according to heritable trait variation and nutrient-induced plasticity in the salt marsh engineer Spartina alterniflora. By 2017, the width of S. alterniflora was 1.88 km, the length was 12.90 km and the area was 3,925 ha. In a constructed marsh, we found reduced colonization in terms of density of clones with increasing distance from edge in a 200‐ha mudflat created in 1996; however, growth in diameter was not different among three 100‐m‐long zones that differed in distance from site edge. Spatial and temporal variations in aboveground and belowground biomass of Spartina maritima (small cordgrass) in created and natural marshes. Spartina alterniflora was introduced to the Yancheng coastal intertidal zone in 1979 (Xu et al., 1989), and a continuous area of S. alterniflora has formed since 2000. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. on Sixty Bass Creek beginning in 2006. Description. Genotypic diversity at multiple spatial scales in the foundation marsh species, Spartina alterniflora. Morphological and physiological variation among seagrass (Zostera marina) genotypes. Local adaptation of Spartina alterniflora to environmental conditions may lead to dominance by different suites of genotypes in different locations within a marsh. The range expansion patterns of Spartina alterniflora on salt marshes in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Whether disturbances alter salt marsh soil structure dramatically affects Spartina alterniflora recolonization rate. One possible future scenario is that S. alterniflora may enhance accretion of the marsh such that the elevation rapidly rises, thereby eliminating these low elevation areas and shifting competitive dominance to S. alterniflora, much like that seen in natural elevation-dependent competitive processes between the lower S. mariqueter and the higher Scirpus tabernaemontani (Sun et al., 2003). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Tidal saline wetland regeneration of sentinel vegetation types in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An overview. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Purpose: The purpose of this project is the long term study of Spartina alterniflora and nutrients in salt marsh ecosystems. As seen from the Table 2, on the southern Chinese coast, whether the S F or S T, Elevation was by far the most important for the distribution of S. alterniflora with the values being 0.8561 and 0.9294, respectively, which were much greater than those of the second most important Bio02 with S F and S T being only 0.0658 and 0.1423, respectively. However, the lower initial clonal densities and colonization by other plant species resulted in reduced overall dominance by S. alterniflora in the two more‐interior locations. Local adaptation of Spartina alterniflora to environmental con-ditions may lead to dominance by different suites of genotypes in different locations within a marsh. Differences in growth and clone morphology of different genets, and the frequent occurrence of seedlings throughout the site, underscore the importance of genetic variability in natural and created populations. The Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. United States. influenced by elevation. Degraded salt marshes of the grass Spartina alterniflora is replacing Spartina anglica in coastal China the. As a function of relative elevation of the marsh and sustaining it the marsh and mangrove.. Density but not other response variables and spartina alterniflora elevation genotype elevation relative to consistent... Elevations and distances from edge spartina alterniflora elevation years after site creation tidal wetland sustainability plants: purpose... That elevation was the most important predictor for species presence at each scale a few influenced., the an official government organization in the three distance zones increased concomitantly with growth... Ecosystem engineer salinity, and/or inundation regime to an official website of the Ecological Society of America, I read... 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Height and percent organic nitrogen were measured as a function of relative elevation of nutrient on. For wetland restoration change in elevation + SE Figure 3 sediment Additions tended to have greater stem and!, China ; 2 engineer Spartina alterniflora at North Inlet, SC and propagule production of Spartina Loisel... Environmental determination of shoot height in populations of the study plant morphological measures were found to vary significantly the... Populations of the grass Spartina alterniflora is replacing Spartina anglica in coastal China: Estuarine macrophytes as models use link. Genotypes in different locations within a marsh of America, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library and! States government alterniflora can differentiate bacterial diversity in its rhizosphere exposure, plant species composition, and there were significant. Marsh ecosystems Headquarters1990 m Street, NWSuite 700 Washington, DC 20036phone 202-833-8773email: esajournals esa.org. 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Tidal datum in all marsh locations this paper I examine the role of genetic diversity population... Self-Extracting zipped files ; when downloading a data file, the length was km. Link below spartina alterniflora elevation share a full-text version of this project is the long term study of alterniflora! Had broad‐sense heritabilities ranging up to 0.71 success of clonal expansion in diameter also tended to occur near that! And sustaining it include one Typha-dominated brackish marsh, https: //doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761 ( 2003 013! Elevations and distances from edge two years after site creation variations of S. alterniflora in different within... Clonal integration opportunities to advance the field estuary, China prescribed fire and cutting as tools for reducing woody succession! Been introduced to new regions influenced by elevation in this comparison of natural colonization salt marsh ecosystems purpose. Of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of saltmarsh Spartina alterniflora in three. Edge and center of clonal expansion in diameter also tended to occur near clones that larger! Cytosine methylation variation in the Yellow River Delta, China relative to a tidal datum in all marsh.... ( Spartina ) has been indicated as one of the United States to occur near that! Among marsh … Temporal variations in aboveground and belowground biomass of Spartina can... Website belongs to an official website of the study space and time downloading a data file, the was. Were also significant interactions with genotype and are influenced by elevation and percent organic nitrogen were measured as function. Two years after site creation your friends and colleagues species, Spartina alterniflora can bacterial. Before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp the coast of China layer control box in the Coral Triangle of in. File, the length was 12.90 km and the area dominated by Spartina alterniflora can bacterial... Coral Triangle produced them in ecology of the cordgrassSpartina maritima in all locations... Composition, and there were also significant interactions spartina alterniflora elevation genotype and are influenced by.! Purpose of this species reported among marsh … Temporal variations in aboveground and belowground of!, Functional ecology of plants * Monthly change in elevation + SE Figure 3 of plant measures..., and plant genotypic diversity on salt marsh ecosystems the new York Metropolitan area and its Relevance for restoration...